In the Gallo-Romance languageshowever, a prop vowel was added: Historical sound change[ edit ] End of word[ edit ] Many languages insert a so-called prop vowel at the end of a word to avoid the loss of a non-permitted cluster. In Spanish, it is usual to find epenthetic vowels in sequences of plosive, flap, and vowel or labiodental fricative, flap, and vowel, normally in a non-emphatic pronunciation.


The second is [e], connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings: Borrowed words[ edit Epenthesis Vocalic epenthesis typically occurs when words are borrowed from a language that has consonant clusters or syllable codas that are not permitted in the borrowing language.

Also, the vowel sound used must not be confused with any existing Lojban vowel.

That is again a synchronic analysis, Epenthesis the form with the vowel is the original form and the Epenthesis was later often lost. Similarly, the agent noun of verkopen "to sell" is verkoper Epenthesisbut the agent noun of uitvoeren "to perform" is uitvoerder "performer".

However it is correct to call it epenthesis when viewed synchronically since the modern basic form of the verb is a and so the psycholinguistic process is therefore Epenthesis addition of t to the base form. Turkish prefixes close vowels to loanwords with initial clusters of alveolar fricatives followed by another consonant: Nothing changes grammatically, including the spelling and the syllabication of the word.

Some apparent occurrences of epenthesis, however, have a separate cause: A Epenthesis example is the English indefinite article a, which becomes an before a vowel.

The practice is no longer productive as of late 20th century and a few such words have changed back: A vowel sound that is nonexistent in Lojban is added between two consonants to make the word easier to pronounce.

Epenthesis is sometimes used for humorous or childlike effect. That may well produce impermissible final clusters. In Standard Finnish, they are slightly intensified before a consonant in a medial cluster: Languages use various vowels, but schwa is quite common when it is available: Despite altering the phonetics of a word, the use of buffering is completely ignored by grammar.

It exhibits epenthesis on both morphemes: The other Slavic languages instead metathesised the vowel and the consonant: The same occurs in the song " Umbrella ". Some accounts distinguish between "intrusive vowels", vowel-like releases of consonants as phonetic detail, and true epenthetic vowels, which are required by the phonotactics of the language and acoustically identical with phonemic vowels.

Some dialects also use [e] for voiced consonant clusters, which is deemed as stereotypical of the lower classes: Informal speech[ edit ] Epenthesis most often occurs within unfamiliar or complex consonant clusters. It uses a number of consonant clusters in its words, and since it is designed to be as universal as possible, it allows a type of anaptyxis called "buffering" to be used if a speaker finds a cluster difficult or impossible to pronounce.

However, a synchronic analysis, in keeping with the perception of most native speakers, would equally correctly see it as epenthesis: French has a three level use of initial epenthesis depending on the time of incorporation: In Finnish[ edit ] In Finnishthere are two epenthetic vowels and two nativization vowels.

Middle of word[ edit ] Examples are common in many Slavic languageswhich had a preference for vowel-final syllables in earlier times. An example of buffering in Lojban: Even if the word, such as a personal name, is native, a paragogic vowel is needed to connect a consonantal case ending to the word.

Most speakers pronounce borrowings with spelling pronunciationsand others try to approximate the nearest equivalents in Portuguese of the phonemes in the original language. However, the pronunciation was often not written with double ll, and may have been the normal way of pronouncing a word starting in rel- rather than a poetic modification.

Finnish has moraic consonants: Some dialects, like Savo and Ostrobothnianhave epenthesis instead and use the preceding vowel in clusters of type -l C - and -h C - in Savo also -nh.EPENTHESIS [Stress: ‘e-PEN-the-sis’]. The insertion of a sound or letter into a WORD or ultimedescente.com epenthetic vowel can be added to break up a consonant cluster, as in Hiberno-Irish ‘fillim’ for ultimedescente.com a vowel often has the value of schwa.

The addition of a letter, sound, or syllable to the middle of a word. A kind of metaplasm.: Note: Epenthesis is sometimes employed in order to accommodate meter in verse; sometimes, to facilitate easier articulation of a word's sound.


Epenthesis arises for a variety of reasons. The phonotactics of a given language may discourage vowels in hiatus or consonant clusters, and a consonant or vowel may be added to make pronunciation easier. Epenthesis may be represented in writing or be a feature only of the spoken language.

Separating vowels. A consonant may be added to separate vowels in hiatus. May 27,  · Hyphenation: epen‧the‧sis Noun []. epenthesis f (plural epentheses) epenthesiVele Nederlandse woorden bevatten een epenthesis om twee zelfstandige naamwoorden te verbinden.

A lot of Dutch words contain an epenthesis to tie two nouns together. Epenthesis definition, the insertion of one or more sounds in the middle of a word, as the schwa in the nonstandard pronunciation [el-uh m] /ˈɛl əm/ of elm.

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EPENTHESIS. Definition: The insertion of a vowel to break up a cluster. Comment: The speed of movement needed to produce a transition from one consonant to another in a cluster can be slowed by the insertion of a vowel.

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